A sound motif is a recurring sound effect or group of effects that are associated with a particular character. Viewers can then tell when a certain character, event or situation is going to arrive as it is sustained throughout the episode or series.
For example, in Doctor Who, whenever the TARDIS materialization sound is heard you know that The Doctor has arrived: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/sounds/tardis.mp3
Parallel sound adds to the effect of the show or film by contributing to the mood and atmosphere. The audio and visual effects match the mood and atmosphere, like you would expect them to.
In this clip of Merlin, Sir Gwaine and Prince Arthur are made to fight, and exciting, dramatic non-diegetic sound is playing in the background. This adds to the battle and drama of the scene, as the drums and crescendos play in time with the clanging of the swords:
Sound that goes against what the viewer would expect and contrasts with the mood or atmosphere. It is the opposite of Paralleled sounds and creates a unique effect when watching the film; it sets viewers on edge as the music and images clash. This clip comes from the film Mr & Mrs Smith, and it shows the two main characters Jane and John having a fight, yet the music is quite jolly and this makes the scene far from real and gives it a comical feel.
Another example within this film would be the fight scene at the end of the film between the couple and the companies they work for. The action, gun power and well choreographed moves are contrasted with a tango song that was also featured earlier on.
"Breaking the 4th wall" where an actor or actress addresses the audience by looking at the camera and/or talking to them, not another cast member. For example, in Miranda, she often looks at the camera to show her inner feelings to the audience, and the other cast member cannot see what she is saying or doing, as she is talking only to the audience. This clip involves a few examples of how Miranda looks at the camera during the scene: